Hypokalemia <3.5 mmol/L Severe < 2.5 mmol/L ECG changes ST depression U wave QT prolongation (>450 ms) PVCs AV block Bradycardia Vtach Vfib Treatment- Replacement Each 10 mEq raises K 0.1 mmol/L PO replacement preferred ECG changes require admission and IV + oral replacement. Magnesium replacement is also indicated. Many foods contain potassium. Replacement need not be tablets only. See list here. Symptoms

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Hyperkalemia >6.0 mmol/L EKG changes (not necessarily in order, especially if chronic renal failure patient) Peaked T waves PR prolongation Short QT (<350 ms) Widened QRS Flat P waves Heart Block Sine wave V. Fib. Treatment: Stabilize, Shift, Excrete Stabilize: Calcium stabilizes myocardial membrane with onset in 15-30 minutes. Calcium gluconate IV 10 ml of 10% solution over 10 minutes may cause

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CT Contrast and Kidneys (FAQ)

American College of Radiology Manual on Contrast Media (download pdf): 1) Do end-stage renal patients need urgent dialysis after a CT scan with IV contrast? No “Most low-osmolality iodinated contrast media are not protein-bound, have relatively low molecular weights, and are readily cleared by dialysis. Unless an unusually large volume of contrast medium is administered, or there is substantial underlying

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